Turks are heading to the polls in presidential and parliamentary elections that could either solidify President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s grip on power or reveal new signs of weakness after more than 15 years of increasingly authoritarian rule.
Previously divided opposition parties have come together in a tenuous alliance in their efforts to end what they call Erdogan's march toward "one-man rule."
Erdogan in April declared that presidential and parliamentary elections would be held on June 24, more than a year earlier than planned, a move that could help him consolidate his power.
Turkey is shifting from a parliamentary system to a presidential one in which the president will have more authority. The changes will take effect after the elections.
However, Erdogan and his ruling party could be facing tougher competition than originally expected, and polls suggest that the presidential vote could head into a second-round runoff on July 8 and that the Justice and Development (AK) Party could lose its parliamentary majority after 16 years.
His leading challenger is likely to be Muharrem Ince of the main opposition Republican People's Party (CHP), a secularist grouping.
The CHP leader is backed by the newly formed National Alliance, which along with secular social democrats, includes center-right conservatives, nationalist liberal conservatives, and conservative Islamists.
National Alliance parliamentary candidates vowed that if they secure majority control of the legislature, they will roll back the Erdogan-backed constitutional amendments narrowly approved in a controversial 2017 referendum that transformed Turkey into a presidential system.
In addition to expanding presidential powers, the amendments will also scrap the post of prime minister and abolish many checks and balances that were designed to help parliament protect against the misuse of presidential powers.
On the eve of the election, hundreds of thousands of people packed the Maltepe shore on the Asian side of Istanbul for Ince’s final speech, which followed several massive rallies in Izmir, Ankara, and elsewhere.
The former physics teacher, who has pledged to end what he calls Erdogan’s "one-man rule," claimed the gathering attracted 5 million people, although no official estimates were available.
Ince told the crowd that if he wins, “it will not just be Ince who wins...80 million people will win! Turkey will win!"
Erdogan, who held five rallies in Istanbul on June 23, called on supporters to be vigilant at the polling stations.
"Beware: do not be overcome by languor. Take all your friends, relatives to the ballot box," he said. "The security personnel will intervene once you ask them to do so."
Erdogan has dominated Turkish politics for more than 15 years, first as prime minister and since 2014 as president. He remains popular with vast segments of the population.
Selahattin Demirtas, a jailed Turkish-Kurdish politician, is also a candidate for the pro-Kurdish Peoples Democratic Party's (HDP). He has campaigned from jail, where he has been held since November 2016 on charges of links to Kurdish insurgents, which he denies.
Kurds make up some 18 percent of Turkey's 78 million people, mostly in eastern regions, and could play a key role in deciding the election.