Syrian state media said government air defenses responded to an act of "aggression" by Israel against an air base in the central Homs Province.
The nature and the origin of the attack on the T4 air base, which was reported by the official SANA news agency, could not be immediately confirmed.
"Our air defenses thwarted an Israeli aggression and destroyed two of the rockets that targeted the T-4 airbase," SANA cited a military source as saying.
SNA claimed that the remaining rockets "killed one soldier, wounded two others, and damaged an arms warehouse."
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, a Britain-based monitoring group, said five people were killed, including one Syrian soldier.
It said the attack also destroyed a rocket warehouse.
The monitoring group said fighters from Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, who have fought alongside Syrian President Bashar al-Assad since the beginning of the Syrian civil war in 2011, are also posted at the T4 base.
The Syrian government has accused Israel of carrying out previous attacks on T-4, also known as the Tayfur base.
Israel has carried out hundreds of air strikes in Syria, most of them against what it said are Iranian and Hizballah targets.
Israel has said it is determined to prevent its archrival Iran from entrenching itself militarily in Syria.